Interim Document -- Transition to RDA
University Libraries will create and edit cataloging according to the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed., 2002 revision and updates (AACR2); the Library of Congress Rule Interpretations (LCRI); the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH); the Library of Congress classification schedules; and OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards.
Pre-AACR2 cataloging copy is to be upgraded to AACR2 standards; any exceptions must be approved by the supervisor. See the section below on upgrading pre-AACR2 records.
RDA records will be accepted and will not be retroactively edited to AACR2, with the exceptions noted below. Also, we will not edit AACR2 records to RDA standards. NOTE: Original cataloging will be created according to AACR2 standards until October 1, 2013, at which time RDA will be implemented according to the RDA Toolkit and the Library of Congress Policy Statements, with the local exception of the GMD as defined below.
As our local catalog is available online, our work represents the department, the Libraries, and the University to users locally and throughout the world. Accuracy and attention to detail are paramount. Please proof your work carefully before you add records to the catalog.
Fixed fields: Check each code. Be sure date type and date(s) are consistent with the date(s) in the 260 field. Refer to OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards and OCLC MARC Code Lists for values to be entered in specific fields. (NOTE: The MARC Code Lists link leads to separate links for individual code lists.) Leader and fixed fields are always to be coded at national (full) level, even though level K technically allows for some omissions.
These Descriptive Cataloging codes are valid in the OCLC Desc fixed field:
- Blank = non-ISBD cataloging. This will apply to many older records.
- a = AACR2 cataloging (including ISBD).
- c = Record has ISBD punctuation omitted.
- i = ISBD. Record was input after the introduction of ISBD and before AACR2. NOTE: Code i is also used for RDA records.
This fixed field was originally developed to control punctuation on catalog cards. For this reason, it is not officially a "rules used in cataloging" field. There is no separate code for records cataloged according to RDA; code "i" is used instead.
Variable fields: Verify that each of the following fields matches the piece in hand. Make any needed changes before exporting the record to the local catalog. Click on MARC tag numbers in the list below for additional information on each field.
Library of Congress control number (LCCN)
LC Control number and/or canceled or invalid LC control numbers.
Delete. Used by LC for control elements not accommodated in the fixed field.
National Bibliography Number
Delete. Number assigned to the catalog entry in a non-U.S. national bibliography.
National Bibliographic Agency Control Number
Delete. Numbers assigned by national bibliographic agency other than Library of Congress.
OCLC Control Number Cross-Reference
Retain on serial records; delete on all others. Superceded OCLC numbers for records merged with the current record.
International Standard Book Number (ISBN)
If a book has ISBN's for different bindings, delete those that do not match the book in hand -- IF it is clear which ISBNs apply. Exception: Juvenile literature (see DeGrummond Collection guidelines -- HYPERLINK THIS).
Conflicting ISBN's. When conflicting ISBN's are on different parts of the book and there is no way to tell which is correct, leave them in the bib record, including qualifiers that state the source of the numbers, e.g.:
020 __ 1234567890 (t.p. verso)
020 __ 9781234567891 (back cover)
Multivolume Sets. When cataloging a multivolume set and the record contains ISBN's for both the set and individual volumes, leave all ISBNs in the record.
Price Information. Delete any price information in 020 $c.
Paperbacks. When cataloging a paperback and the ISBN in the record is correct but does not have the qualifier (pbk.) after the ISBN, add the (pbk.) qualifier.
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
in a serial record. If there are multiple ISSN's (e.g., additional ISSN's in $x or $y), leave them in.
||Other System Control No.
Delete. Control numbers from non-OCLC automated systems (e.g., British Library, etc.).
Update holdings in OCLC before exporting, so that $d MUS (or $d MLA) is added to the field. This is the MARC code of the name of the organization(s) that created the original record, assigned MARC content, or modified an existing MARC record.
The holding library code for items held by University Liibraries. In the past, we had many location-specific OCLC holding codes, which can be seen in our older catalog records. We now use only two: MUSH for titles cataloged for the Hattiesburg campus, and MLAC for those cataloged for USM Gulf Coast. Government document MARC records purchased from Marcive, Inc. may be seen in the catalog with an 049 code of MDOC, which is not an OCLC code. See Holdings Symbols.
LC Call Number (050)
Local LC-Type Call Number (090)
Local Free-Text Call Number (099)
Our local catalog does not recognize 090 call numbers in the indexing program. 090 is an OCLC internal field, not an official MARC tag. If you find an 090 call number in an OCLC record you are using, change the tag to 050 with 1st indicator blank (no information provided) or 1 (item is not in LC) and 2nd indicator 4. If 090 remains in the record when it is exported from OCLC, the call numbers will not index in our catalog.
If you make any change to an 050 call number with 2nd indicator zero other than adding the date, change the 2nd indicator to 4 to indicate a local call number.
The date in the call number must match the date in the 260 field. Be certain all changes have been made to the call number before exporting.
Do not use 055 (National Library of Canada) call numbers, since these represent Canadian modifications to the LC schedules.
Remove "x" from the end of call numbers for records added to our catalog for new materials. If you are adding a copy to an existing catalog record with an x in the call number, use the x in the call number for the added copy. If you notice that the call number is not consistent in various locations of a title (x's in some locations but not others), pull the books, delete the x, and create new labels. Due to differences between Millennium and our previous system, such inconsistencies will not be easy to spot and may be apparent only from the string of migrated data in individual item records; therefore, these changes are not a high priority.
If you are cataloging a book with an alphanumeric call number (for example, for the ERC or Curriculum Lab) and the cataloging copy has an LC call number, leave the LC number and add the local curriculum classification number in 099. Otherwise, delete all call number fields except the one we are using for our title.
Delete all unused classifications such as 055, 060, 070, 072, 082, 092, 096, etc.
If you are editing a Millennium record with an LC call number in 090 or 099, create a new 050 field with field group tag "Call no." and copy/paste or rekey the call number into the new field. Millennium will not allow Call no. fields to be changed and retain the correct field group tag. After saving the new call number field, delete the 090 or 099.
Should match title page (or other chief source of information).
When cataloging CIP copy or copy from non-LC sources, be very careful about 245 title information; it may have changed between CIP and actual publication.
Bracket [ ] any information in the 245 that does not come from the chief source of information (for example, an author statement taken from the verso of a title page).
Videos: Use the container title. If the title in 245 is from the title frame with a 246 for container title, flip these fields and add a 500 note to explain that the title was taken from somewhere other than the title frame. This is a local practice to assist library users.
Foreign films: Title in 245 should be the title in the original language, with English title (if available) given as a parallel title in 245 $b following = and also as a 246 variant title. Example:
245 03 La Sir è ne du Mississippi $h [videorecording] = $b Mississippi mermaid
246 31 Mississippi mermaid
Records cataloged according to RDA will not have a GMD in the 245 field, even for nonprint formats. RDA does away with the GMD and replaces it with three new physical description (3xx) fields, described below.
Local practice: As a service to our patrons, University Libraries will continue to use the GMD in our catalog for formats that have historically called for a GMD: microforms, online resources, computer files, visual materials, and realia. If you are working with an RDA record, add the GMD according to the list here.
Print resources such as books, journals, maps, and music scores do not receive a GMD.
Exception/Local practice: University Libraries uses GMD [manuscript] for manuscript collections, which may contain print materials.
Add 246 fields for spelled-out forms of numerals and symbols that appear in the 245 field. Also add a 246 for any variations from the 245 title that appear on or in the work. See Bibliographic Formats and Standards for a list of 246 indicators and their meanings.
The edition statement on the cataloging record must match the book. For example, do not use and alter a record for the 3rd edition to catalog the 4th edition.
The only exception to this is presence of a "First edition" statement vs. no edition statement at all. If your book has a "First edition" statement and you find a record that matches in every way except that it has no edition statement, add the edition statement and use the record.
A statement such as "Reprinted with corrections, 2013 " is actually an edition statement and belongs in the 250 field (see 260, below). In some foreign languages, the term "edition" is used interchangeably with "printing"; if you are in doubt as to whether the work in hand is actually a different edition, consult a librarian.
If an edition statement has a statement of responsibility recorded in 250 $b, check it against the work you are cataloging.
Imprint (AACR2: Publication, Distribution...)
If editing CIP copy or copy from non-LC sources, be sure the publication date ($c) matches the book; anticipated dates of publication may vary from the actual ones.
If the publisher on a record does not match the publisher in the book, do not use that record (this refers to different publishing firms, not to minor variations in the form of a single publisher's name).
Do not treat printing dates as publication dates, with the exception of de Grummond materials. See de Grummond cataloging materials procedure for more information -- HYPERLINK THIS. However, be aware that a statement that indicates revision of content, such as "Reprinted with corrections, 2013," means the book is a different edition and not just a printing. In such a case, we will need a separate record for the revised printing.
See 264 field information below.
Anticipated Date of Publication
Leave this information in if cataloging electronic serials. Delete in all other instances.
Imprint (RDA: Production, Publication, Distribution...)
The repeatable 264 field was introduced as part of RDA implementation, taking the place of 260 for libraries that choose to use it. University Libraries will use the 264 field(s) in our cataloging, but if you are working with an existing record with a 260 field, do not change it to 264.
See 260 field information above.
If editing CIP copy or copy from non-LC sources, be sure to fill in all 300 field values.
For multi-volume works, 300 $a is intended to represent the number of volumes in the published work, not how many volumes a library owns. For example, if the bibliographic record reads 3 v. and we own only vols. 1-2, do not change 300 $a to read "2 v." If 300 $a is open (i.e., just "v."), do not fill it in unless you know the work is complete.
Example 1. We own v. 1, published in 2009, and have received v. 2, published in 2011. The introduction to v. 2 indicates there will be a third volume. Leave the date in 260 (or 264) and "v." in 300 open.
260 __ xx : $b xx, $c 2009-
300 __ v. : $b ill. ; $c 24 cm.
Example 2. We own v. 1, published in 2005, and have received v. 2, published in 2012.
FF Date 1: 2005
260 __ xx : $b xx, $c 2005-
300 __ v. ; $c 25 cm.
The introduction to v. 2 contains a statement that v. 2 completes the work. Close the dates in 260 (or 264) and the fixed field Date 2 with 2012 and add "2 v." to 300 $a).
FF Date 1: 2005
FF Date 2: 2012
260 __ xx : $b xx, $c 2005-2012.
300 __ 2 v. ; $c 25 cm.
Do not make multiple 300 fields to show accompanying material; instead, record it in 300 $e after a plus sign. If our copy lacks the accompanying material, record that fact in a 590 note, e.g.
590 __ Cook Library copy lacks computer disk.
Use the term "disk" for a computer file on floppy disk. Use "disc" for a computer file on an optical laser disc (CD-ROM) with text or music.
See procedures on Books with Accompanying Electronic Resources for additional information.
RDA -- Additional 3xx Physical Description Fields
As noted above, RDA replaces the GMD with three additional 3xx fields:
- 336 -- Content Type
- 337 -- Media Type
- 338 -- Carrier Type
While we are cataloging according to AACR2, we will not add these fields to records. However, if you are working with an RDA record, do not delete the fields, even if you are adding a GMD to the 245 field. See 336-338 below for more information and live links to OCLC Bib Formats.
Content Type (RDA)
The form of communication through which a work is expressed. Used in conjunction with Leader /06 (Type of record), which indicates the general type of content of the resource. Field 336 information enables expression of more specific content types and content types from various lists.
Multiple content types from the same source vocabulary or code list may be recorded in the same field in separate occurrences of subfield $a (Content type term) and subfield $b (Content type code). Terms from different source vocabularies are recorded in separate occurrences of the field.
See training materials.
Media Type (RDA)
Media type reflects the general type of intermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource. Used as an alternative to or in addition to the coded expression of Media type in field 007/00 (Category of material). Field 337 information enables indication of more specific media types and media types from various lists.
Multiple media types from the same source vocabulary or code list may be recorded in the same field in separate occurrences of subfield $a (Media type term) and subfield $b (Media type code). Terms from different source vocabularies are recorded in separate occurrences of the field.
See training materials.
Carrier Type (RDA)
Carrier type reflects the format of the storage medium and housing of a carrier in combination with the media type (which indicates the intermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource). Used as an alternative to or in addition to the coded expression of carrier type in field 007/01 (Specific material designation). Field 338 information enables indication of more specific carrier types and carrier types from various lists.
Multiple media types from the same source vocabulary or code list may be recorded in the same field in separate occurrences of subfield $a (Carrier type term) and subfield $b (Carrier type code). Terms from different source vocabularies are recorded in separate occurrences of the field.
See training materials.
It has historically been our policy to trace most series. Millennium indexes series titles in 440 (obsolete) or 830 fields in the general title index. Despite LC's discontinuing series authority work several years ago, University Libraries will continue to trace series (i.e., give them an access point that appears in the title browse index of our catalog).
Series in 490 with 1st Indicator Zero (490 0_)
- For unnumbered series: Change 490 0_ to 490 1_. Also copy the series statement into an 830 _0 field. This will enable Marcive, our authority vendor, to authorize the 830 field and provide us with an authority record if one exists.
- For numbered series: Print a copy of the catalog record and give it, with the item, to the head of the Cataloging Unit, who will decide on the correct form and classification for the series and make a local series authority record if needed.
Older Records with Series in 440
Remove initial articles from the 440 and change 2nd indicator to zero. Otherwise, accept the series statement as it is. 440 series will be automatically converted to 490/830 by Marcive when the bibliographic records are sent to them for authority work.
Series in 490 1_/830 Field Combinations
Accept fields as they are. The series will be reviewed when the records are sent to Marcive.
If an item has an index but no bibliography, a note about the index should be included.
500 __ Includes index.
Reformat older bibliographic notes (e.g., "Includes bibliographies," or "Bibliography: P. 45") to current usage, which is "Includes bibliographical references (p. 45). Bibliography and index notes should be combined in this form:
504 __ Includes bibliographical references (p. 45) and index.
Do not ADD formatting (subfield coding) to contents notes. However, if a record you are working with already contains a formatted contents note (505 00), leave the formatting in.
Periods are no longer used at the end of the contents of each volume, but the note itself does end with a period.
505 0_ Vol. 1. Civil War years -- v. 2. Reconstruction period.
See footnote 10 in AACR2 abbreviations table (App. B.) for use of abbreviations "vol.," and "v." in notes.
- Do not delete articles at the beginning of titles in contents notes. It is no longer necessary.
- Update contents notes when you add new volumes to multi-volume titles we already own.
- Use standard library capitalization in contents notes. Some records have scanned-in contents notes that reflect a variety of capitalization practices; correct these to standard format.
- Delete contents notes that are simply a list of chapters or that otherwise provide no useful information.
- Delete contents entries such as "Preface," "Acknowledgements," etc.
Past practice at University Libraries was to add contents notes to edited works in the areas of science/technology and literature when contents notes were lacking as an aid to patron access and findability. Edited works and collections outside science/technology and literature received added contents notes if there were fewer than 15 titles. This practice may be reevaluated in the future. [lkg 02/15/2013]
Use only for notes that describe University Libraries' copy, not all copies of the work, e.g.
590 __ Cook Library item 32280010783280 imperfect; lacks p. 121-125.
590 __ Mississippiana item 32280010783017 inscribed by the author.
Note the use of the barcode as a unique item identifier, since University Libraries no longer uses copy numbers in call numbers.
See De Grummond cataloging procedures for instructions on notes related to numbered printings. HYPERLINK THIS
- Use $v for form subdivisions (i.e., what an item is (dictionaries, maps, etc.) vs. what it is about.
- Delete 650 headings with 2nd indicator 2,3,4,5,6, or 7. For materials we catalog, we use only LCSH subject headings (650 _0). If deleting non-LCSH subjects means the record will be left with no subject headings, refer the record to a librarian for subject heading assignment.
- Some batch-loaded records may contain subject headings from other thesauri (e.g., 650 _4). Leave these headings in the records.
- Delete 653 free-text subject headings.
Use the LC thesaurus for genre headings in the 655 field. Change the form:
FROM: 655 _7 Historical fiction. $2 lcsh
TO: 655 _0 Historical fiction.
Make this change only for those 655 fields that are followed by $2 lcsh. If there is any other thesaurus code in 655 $2, do not change it.
Added entries must be "justified" -- i.e., if a heading is used as an added entry, there must be a reference to it in the body of the record, either 245 $c statement of responsibility or in a 5xx note. Under AACR2, LC dropped the use of $e (editor, illustrator, etc.) for most 700 fields. However, RDA has a renewed emphasis on recording the function of creators or contributors, so we will see more use of $e.
For Special Collections materials, there may be requirements to add more information. Refer to the instructions for those specific collections.
Do not use 740 for multiple titles within a single work, unless there is no author -- use 700 $t (author/title entry). If 740 has been used for a variant of title proper (cover title, etc.) or portion of the title, move the variant to 246 with the proper indicators.
Use 790 (personal name) or 791 (corporate body) field for local interest added entries (e.g., an entry for a person or corporate body not directly responsible for a work, such as a thesis advisor). 791 is also used to provide keyword access for named collections within the Libraries.
791 2_ Floyd C. and Stella T. Dickman Collection.
Authorized form of series when different from the form that appears on item. See 4xx above for instructions on series statements.
Initial articles: Do not use initial articles in 246, 440, 505, 600 $t, 700 $t, 740, 830. The system does not have any provision for skipping articles in indexing some of these fields, and articles are omitted for consistency's sake in others.
Upgrading Pre-AACR2 copy: (lock and replace for credit)
Fixed field: Change Desc to code a. Some older records may lack correct coding for bibliographic information, indexes, illustrations, and /or country of publication. Check the entire fixed field.
Add ISBD punctuation and spacing. If there is not an author statement, supply one. If existing author statement includes [by] and "by" does not appear on the title page, remove it.
Add ISBD punctuation and spacing. Pre-AACR2 cataloging called for bracketing dates if they appeared anywhere but the chief source of information, which was usually the title page. If the work you are cataloging has the date on the title page verso, remove the brackets around the date in the cataloging record.
Add ISBD punctuation and spacing. Collations in pre-AACR2 cataloging could be very detailed, with multiple page sequences and types of illustrations. The rules have since been simplified to allow for description of complex paging as "1 v. (various pagings)" and to describe most types of illustrations as "ill." When editing older cataloging, ask yourself if the 300 field would make sense to a patron; if not, simplify it.
If you change an illustration statement in the 300 field, fixed field codes in the "Ill." area should be changed to match. Similarly, book sizes used to be recorded to the half centimeter; sizes are now rounded off to the next highest whole centimeter.
||If the 740 field is used to provide access for portions of the title in the 245 field, move the partial title information to a 246 field (indicators should be 30).
NOTE: These instructions are for upgrading old, pre-AACR2 records to AACR2. The purpose of this upgrading is to include information that was often omitted under older cataloging code, such as author statements and index notes. As noted above, we will not change AACR2 records to RDA.
Use the "Derive new record" command when creating a new record that borrows information from another similar record. When creating "new" records derived from LC copy, do not leave the (Fixed Field) Source blank; replace the blank with code d. Review your record carefully to be sure you have removed all information that does not apply to the title we own.
For a financial credit, lock and replace K level records that already have a call number and at least one subject heading. For example, add ISBD punctuation or otherwise upgrade to AACR2. For K or I level records with no LC call number and/or no subject headings, see the Head of the Cataloging Unit before upgrading. Do not change the encoding level from K to I without clearance from the department head.
Errors in OCLC records created by University Libraries (MUS $c MUS) must be corrected. If you find an error in an original record after it has been added to the OCLC database, lock and replace the record. If this is not possible because another library has already used the record, we must file an error report with OCLC. See the Head of the Cataloging Unit if you have questions on this procedure.
NOTE: This document is a work in progress and will be revised as needed to reflect changes in national and local standards. When you are unsure of what to do, always ask for assistance from a supervisor.
KW rev Feb 2013