Section 3. Citing Sources in APA Style

Parenthetical or In-text References

A parenthetical or in-text reference is the term for citing material within the body of your paper. Whenever you summarize, paraphrase or quote another author's material you must include a brief citation (the author's last name and a page number) to tell the reader what information you have borrowed and from where. That brief citation tells the reader that the complete citation can be found at the end of your paper in the Reference list.

An example of a parenthetical reference:

A longstanding concern in the study of children's social and emotional development is the nature of the relationship between television violence and aggressive behavior (Simmons, Stalsworth, & Wentzel, 1999).

When you write (Simmons, Stalsworth, & Wentzel, 1999) at the end of a sentence, the reader knows that you have borrowed or summarized ideas from an article by Simmons, Stalsworth, & Wentzel published in 1999 and that the full citation to that work can be found in the Reference list at the end of your paper.

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